The investigation of the factors which lead to the destruction of orthodox church buildings and their parts

V. V. Lykhohrai

Abstract


Problem Statement. The main characteristic of the buildings, including Orthodox churches, is a reliability index. It depends on the service condition and includes reliability, durability, effective age of a structure and suitability of buildings and their separate elements to repairs [4; 10]. Despite the fact that the greatest losses Ukrainian architectural heritage have suffered from the policy of the communist regime and utilitarian, equally important factor was the low cultural standard of living. A number of lost churches as a result of neglect and "unconscious vandalism" is equal to the losses that were caused by the First and Second World Wars [2; 9]. As a result of the increase, the intensity of the adverse factors impact on Orthodox churches building their reliability is reduced. Since the dominant number of scientific publications dealing with technical condition and methods of restoration only for particular buildings, it is still no common data on the primary cause of the destruction of Orthodox churches. The main unexplored issues include the following: 1) what kinds of structural destructions have a mass character; 2) what kinds of what factors have a critical role in reducing building reliability index; 3) what are the main causes of the loss of interior decoration of churches. Research in this area will help to prioritize the development of constructive and technological solutions for the restoration of Ukrainian sacral architectural heritage.

The purpose of the article. To identify factors which have the most impact on the durability of supporting structures of stone Orthodox churches (including which were built before 1917) and preserve their interior decoration on the basis of the expert survey.

Conclusion. According to the results of expert evaluation and calculations, found that: cupolas, vaults (domes) and vertical bearing structures suffered the most significant losses; the main destructive factors of Orthodox churches can be considered disturbance of building structural scheme of the building, disturbance of service condition, temperature and humidity condition; mistakes in the design and construction of churches caused minimal loss of Orthodox church (due to the fact that churches are considered those that have survived).


Keywords


expert evaluation; the expert group; destroying factors; the durability of construction; stone Orthodox churches; decorative finishing

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alekseenko V.N. and Zhilenko O.B. Ocenka texnicheskogo sostoyaniya i zadachi restavracii zvonnicy Balaklavskogo Georgievskogo monastyrya [Evaluation of the technical condition and restoration issues of the belfry of the Balaklava St. George Monastery]. Resursoekonomnі materіaly, konstruktsii, budіvlі ta sporudy [Ressource efficiet materials, structures, buildings and constructions]. Akad. bud-va Ukrainy, Nats. un-t vod. gosp-va ta prirodokorystuvannia, Pіvn.-Zakh. terytor. vіd-nia ABU [Construction Academy of Ukraine, National University of Water Resources Policy and Natural Resource Management, the North-West territorial office of the Construction Academy of Ukraine]. Rіvne, 2013, iss. 27, pp. 431–439. (in Russian).

Dyujzen E.Yu. Metod ekspertnogo ocenivaniya: rukovodstvo k dejstviyu [The method of expert evaluation: a guide to the action]. Kreativnaya ekonomika [The creative economics]. 2014, no. 2 (86), pp. 24–34. (in Russian).

Kozachek V.G., Nochaev N.V., Notenko S.N., Rimshin V.I. and Rojtman A.G. Obsledovanie i ispytanie zdanij i sooruzhenij [Inspection and testing of buildings and structures]. Moskva: Vyssh. shk., 2004, 477 p. (in Russian).

Lyamec V.I. and Tevjashev A.D. Sistemnyj analiz. Vvodnyj kurs [The system analysis]. Xar'kov: XNURYe, 2004, 448 p. (in Russian).

Orlov A.I. Nechislovaya statistika [The non numbered statistics]. Moskva: M3-Press, 2004, 513 p. (in Russian).

Petrichenko G.S. and Petrichenko V.G. Metodika ocenki kompetentnosti ekspertov [The assessing methodology of the experts competence]. Politematicheskij setevoj elektronnyj nauchnyj zhurnal Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta (Nauchnyj zhurnal KubGAU) [The Polytechnical Network Electronic Scientific Journal of the Kuban State Agrarian University (Scientific journal of the KubSAU).]. 2015, no. 109(05). Available at: http://ej.kubagro.ru/2015/05/pdf/04.pdf. (in Russian).

Calderini C. and Pagnini L.C. The debate on the strengthening of two slender masonry structures in early XX century: A contribution to the history of wind engineering. Jornal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 2015, vol. 147, pp. 302-319.

Goncharenko D., Miljan J. and Lykhohrai V. Features of technological process in the dome restoration of Orthodox Churches. 7th International Conference on Safety and Durability of Structures. ICOSADOS 2016. May 10-12, 2016, Portugal, UTAD: book of abstracts. Available at: http://icosados.com/Content/ICOSADOS%202016%20Book%20of%20Abstracts.pdf.

Marshall D., Worthing D. and Heath R. Understanding Housing Defects. London: The Estates Gazeette, 2003, 384 p.

Muller N. Grundungssanierung der Stadtkirche in Dinslaken. Bautechnik. 2012, jg. 89, nr. 1, s. 37–47.

Valluzzi M.R., Binda L. and Modena C. Mechanical behavior of historic masonry structures strengthened by bed joints structural repointing. Construction and Building Materials. 2005, vol. 19, іss. 1, pp. 63–73.


GOST Style Citations


Алексеенко В. Н. Оценка технического состояния и задачи реставрации звонницы Балаклавского Георгиевского монастыря / В. Н. Алексеенко, О. Б. Жиленко // Ресурсоекономні матеріали, конструкції, будівлі та споруди : зб. наук. пр. / Акад. буд-ва України, Нац. ун-т вод. госп-ва та природокористування, Півн.-Зах. територ. від-ня АБУ. – Рівне, 2013. – Вип. 27. – С. 431–439.

 

Вечерський В. В. Втрачені об’єкти архітектурної спадщини Києва і України: новий погляд / В. В. Вечерський. – Режим доступу: http://archive.org.ua/archive/2008-07-01/heritage.com.ua/spadshina/arhitektura/index.php?id=59.

 

Дюйзен Е. Ю. Метод экспертного оценивания: руководство к действию / Е. Ю. Дюйзен // Креативная экономика. – 2014. – № 2 (86). – С. 24–34.

 

Обследование и испытание зданий и сооружений : учеб. пособие для вузов / В. Г. Козачек, Н. В. Ночаев, С. Н. Нотенко, В. И. Римшин, А. Г. Ройтман ; под. ред. В. И. Римшина. – Москва : Высш. шк., 2004. – 477 с.

 

Лямец В. И. Системный анализ. Вводный курс / В. И. Лямец, А. Д. Тевяшев. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Харьков : ХНУРЭ, 2004. – 448 с.

 

Орлов А. И. Нечисловая статистика / А. И. Орлов. – Москва : М3-Пресс, 2004. – 513 с.

 

Петриченко Г. С. Методика оценки компетентности экспертов / Г. С Петриченко, В. Г. Петриченко // Политематический сетевой электронный научный журнал Кубанского государственного аграрного университета (Научный журнал КубГАУ). – 2015. – № 109(05). – Режим доступа: http://ej.kubagro.ru/2015/05/pdf/04.pdf.

 

Calderini C. The debate on the strengthening of two slender masonry structures in early XX century: A contribution to the history of wind engineering / C. Calderini, L. C. Pagnini // Jornal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. – 2015. – Vol. 147. – Р. 302–319.

 

Goncharenko D. Features of technological process in the dome restoration of Orthodox Churches / Goncharenko D., Miljan J., Lykhohrai V. // 7th International Conference on Safety and Durability of Structures. ICOSADOS 2016. May 10-12, 2016, Portugal, UTAD : вook of аbstracts / еditors: Jorge Tiago Pinto, Anabela Paiva, Andrzej Pawłowski, Ulvis Skadin. – Available at: http://icosados.com/Content/ICOSADOS%202016%20Book%20of%20Abstracts.pdf.

 

Marshall D. Understanding Housing Defects. / D. Marshall, D. Worthing, R. Heath. – Second edition. – London : The Estates Gazeette, 2003. – 384 p.

 

Muller N. Grundungssanierung der Stadtkirche in Dinslaken / N. Muller // Bautechnik. – 2012. – Jg. 89, nr. 1. – S. 37–47.

 

Valluzzi M. R. Mechanical behavior of historic masonry structures strengthened by bed joints structural repointing / M. R. Valluzzi, L. Binda, C. Modena // Construction and Building Materials. – 2005. – Vol. 19, іss. 1. – P. 63–73.



Comments on this article

View all comments