Analysis of the significance of the interested parties of the project
The success or failure of the project often depends on factors which related to the environment, surrounded by the project and which are outside of the direct control of the project manager. As it known, today in the environment of Ukrainian project managers, one of the most discussed topics is models and theories related to stakeholders. It has long been known that the best results are achieved by those projects and organizations that fully take into account the influence of stakeholders and competently build their interaction with all their stakeholders, which creates value for all parties, and not just for shareholders. At the same time, classical stakeholder management mechanisms, taken from strategic management, can not be translated into project management, since the project management is more tactical in nature and requires fast, proactive actions and an equally operational management of the stakeholders. Organizations are more successful when they correlate their internal resources and capabilities with the needs of the external environment (stakeholders). At the same time, the influence of stakeholders on the outcome and success of the project is much higher than in corporate governance, since the projects are finite, the economic activity in them is more intensive. It should also be noted that the number of models for measuring the success of the project  is very large. However, almost all of them are concentrated only on the organization and the customer, the customer and the project team, which automatically reduces the very possibility of project success. From the authors point of view, it is more expedient to evaluate the success of the project from the point of view of various stakeholders, where the resultant indicator is the degree of their overall satisfaction. This logic of expanding the factors that determine the success of the project leads to an understanding that it is most appropriate to assess the success of the project from the perspective of all stakeholders, analyze them, balance their interests and manage them. As a result of the research, the problem of constructing a model of the impact of projects on the activities of the organization was identified. This problem can be solved with the help of a balanced system of indicators, according to any organization can be considered in different perspectives (projections), the main ones being finance, equipment, internal processes, innovations, customers and staff training. In addition, it was found that there are two main types of indicators - the resulting and motivating. The values of indicators of the first type are determined by the results of the work, and the second is the benchmark to which the organization should strive and which can affect the values of the resulting indicators. The main guideline in the field of project management is the satisfaction of all stakeholders, so the second type of indicators should be considered precisely through the prism of stakeholder management. To identify and work with motivating indicators in projects it is advisable to work with stakeholders. However, classical stakeholder management mechanisms taken from strategic management can not be translated into project management, since the project management is more tactical in nature and requires quick, active actions and an equally operational management of the stakeholders. For the analysis of stakeholders, the typology of R. Mitchell is considered. At the heart of the typology are three factors: legality, significance and urgency, i. e. the legal legitimacy of the opportunity to give directions, the strength of the interested party's influence on the enterprise, the minimum required speed of responses to the requests of the interested party. In more detailed consideration of this model, it can be concluded that the composition of stakeholder groups during project implementation may vary. In addition, the interested parties themselves can change, especially in the field of their interests and in the degree of influence on the project. In addition, for each group of persons related to the project countries concerned, their main interests are identified. The algorithm of stakeholder analysis is proposed, which is as follows: the project manager identifies all key stakeholder groups, conducts an expert assessment of the degree of threat emanating from them, their willingness to interact, the legality, urgency and relevance of their requirements. This analysis is built not only on knowledge of the key interests of stakeholders, but also their goals. Various assessments and methods for calculating the achievement of goals by stakeholders are considered, depending on the type of objectives. A calculation formula is proposed to determine the weight (importance) of the interested party, which uses weighted average expert estimates of the parameters: power, legality and urgency. A representation of the project model in the form of sequential projection of such fuzzy models is proposed, the projection of the previous one of which serves as the basis for the subsequent one. This presentation of the project allows us to assess not only the degree of achievement of the project objectives, but also the degree of the possibility of achieving the goals of each of the key stakeholders. Purpose. Summarize, analyze and form an idea of the potential of existing approaches to the management of the project environment. Object of study. Management processes of the persons, who interested in the project environment. Subject of study. Methods and tools for the project management environment.
Full Text:PDF (Русский)
Donaldson T. and Preston L.E. The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications. The Academy of Management Review. 1995, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 65–91.
Gibson K. The Moral Basis of Stakeholder Theory. Journal of Business Ethics. 2000, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 245–257.
Wolfe R.A. and Putler D.S. How Tight Are the Ties that Bind Stakeholder Groups? Organizational Science. 2002, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 64–80.
Hardly C. and Phillips N. Strategies of Engagement: Lessons from the Critical Examination of Collaboration and Conflict in an Interorganosational Domain. Organizational Science. 1998, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 217–230.
Henderson R. and Mitchell W. The Interactions of Organizational and Competitive Influences on Strategy and Performance. Strategic Management Journal, 1997, vol. 18, pp. 5–14.
Rad P.F. Project Success Attributes. Cost Engineering. 2003, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 23–29.
Shеnhar A., Levy O. and Dvir D. Mapping the Dimension of Project Success. Project Management Journal. 1997, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 5–13.
Shankman N. A. Reframing the Debate between Agency and Stakeholder Theories of the Firm. Journal of Business Ethics. 1999, vol. 19, iss. 4, pp. 319–334.
Frooman J. Stakeholder Influence Strategies. The Academy of Management Review. 1999, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 191–205.
Damak-Ayadi S. and Pesqueux Y. Stakeholder Theory in Perspective. Corporate Governance: An International Review. 2005, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 5–21.
Winn M.I. Building Stakeholder Theory with a Decision Modelling Methodology. Business & Society. 2001, vol. 40, iss. 2, pp. 133–166.
Mitchell R.K. Agle B.R. and Wood D.J. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. Academy of Management Review. 1997, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 853–886.
Bushuiev S.D., Bushuieva N.S., Kazariezov A.Ya, Koshkin K.V., Ryzhkov S.S., Fatieiev M.V., Chernov S.K. and Yatsunskyi O.S. Upravlinnia proektamy ta programamy [Project and program management]. Mykolaiv: vyd-vo Torubary O.S., 2010, 352 p. (in Ukrainian).
Chernov S.K. and Malyi V.V. Upravlinnia proektamy [Project Management]. Mykolaiv: NUK, 2010, 354 p. (in Ukrainian).
Belokon’ A.I., Malyj V.V. and Mazurkevich A.I. Model’ proektno-orientirovannoj organizacii v dinamicheskom okruzhenii [Model of a project-oriented organization in a dynamic environment]. Stroitel’stvo, materialovedenie, machinistroenie [Construction, Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering]. Starodubovskie chteniya 2012 [Proceedings n. a. Starodubov 2012]. Dnepropetrovsk: PGASA, iss. 64, pp. 272–279 (in Russian).
Burkov V.N. and Burkova I.V. Zadachi dixotomicheskoj optimizacii [Dichotomous optimization issues]. Moskva: Radio i svyaz’, 2003, 156 p. (in Russian).
GOST Style Citations
- Donaldson T. The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications / T. Donaldson, L. Е. Preston // The Academy of Management Review. – 1995. – Vol. 20, no. 1. – Рp. 65–91.
- Gibson K. The Moral Basis of Stakeholder Theory / K. Gibson // Journal of Business Ethics. – 2000. – Vol. 26, no. 3. – Рp. 245–257.
- Wolfe R. A. How Tight Are the Ties that Bind Stakeholder Groups? / R. A. Wolfe, D. S. Putler // Organizational Science. – 2002. – Vol. 13, no. 1. – Рp. 64–80.
- Hardly C. Strategies of Engagement: Lessons from the Critical Examination of Collaboration and Conflict in an Interorganosational Domain / C. Hardly, N. Phillips // Organizational Science. – 1998. – Vol. 9, no. 2. – Рp. 217–230.
- Henderson R. The Interactions of Organizational and Competitive Influences on Strategy and Performance / R. Henderson, W. Mitchell // Strategic Management Journal. – 1997. – Vol. 18. – Рp. 5–14.
- Rad P. F. Project Success Attributes / P. F. Rad // Cost Engineering. – 2003. – Vol. 45, no. 4. – Рp. 23–29.
- Shеnhar A. Mapping the Dimension of Project Success / A. Shеnhar, О. Levy, D. Dvir // Project Management Journal. – 1997. – Vol. 28, no. 2. – Рp. 5–13.
- Shankman N. A. Reframing the Debate between Agency and Stakeholder Theories of the Firm / N. A. Shankman // Journal of Business Ethics. – 1999. – Vol. 19, iss. 4. – Pp. 319–334.
- Frooman J. Stakeholder Influence Strategies / J. Frooman // The Academy of Management Review. – 1999. – Vol. 24, no. 2. – Pp. 191–205.
10. Damak-Ayadi S., Pesqueux Y. Stakeholder Theory in Perspective / S. Damak-Ayadi, Y. Pesqueux // Corporate Governance: An International Review. – 2005. – Vol. 5, no. 2. – Pp. 5–21.
11. Winn M. I. Building Stakeholder Theory with a Decision Modelling Methodology / M. I. Winn // Business & Society. – 2001. – Vol. 40, iss. 2. – Pp. 133–166.
12. Mitchell R. K. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts / R. K. Mitchell, B. R. Agle, D. J. Wood // Academy of Management Review. – 1997. – Vol. 22, no. 4. – Рp. 853–886.
13. Управління проектами та програмами : підручник / С. Д. Бушуєв, Н. С. Бушуєва, А. Я. Казарєзов, К. В. Кошкін, С. С. Рижков, М. В. Фатєєв, С. К. Чернов, О. С. Яцунський. – Миколаїв : вид-во Торубари О.С., 2010. – 352 с.
14. Управління проектами / під ред. С. К. Чернова та В. В. Малого : навч. посіб. – Миколаїв : НУК, 2010. – 354 с.
15. Белоконь А. И. Модель проектно-ориентированной организации в динамическом окружении / А. И. Белоконь, В. В. Малый, А. И. Мазуркевич // Строительство, материаловедение, машиностроение : сб. науч. тр. – Днепропетровск : ПГАСА, 2012. – Вып. 64. – С. 272–278. – (Стародубовские чтения 2012).
16. Бурков В. Н. Задачи дихотомической оптимизации / В. Н. Бурков, И. В. Буркова. – Москва : Радио и связь, 2003. – 156 с.