DOI: https://doi.org/10.30838/J.BPSACEA.2312.250918.15.192

Analysis of external and internal forces in the environment of the project

A. I. Bilokon, S. A. Malanchiy, T. V. Kotsiuba, T. A. Alqubailat

Abstract


Today among Ukrainian project managers one of the most discussed topics is the management of external and internal forces in the project environment. It is known that the best results are achieved by those projects and organizations that take maximum into account the influence of stakeholders and competently build their relationships with all stakeholders, which creates value for all parties, and not just for project owners. The analysis of publications and studies shows that attention is paid to various aspects of the project's interaction with stakeholders, but all these sources give a fragmentary account of the problem, do not give a complete picture of the process as a whole. It is important for the manager to see and represent the whole process in order to understand the relationship and significance of successive actions and tasks aimed at managing stakeholders.Purpose. The aim of the work is to summarize and systematize the knowledge complex concerning the management of important actors in the project environment, to present the whole process of managing interactions entirely and to identify opportunities for improving the manageability of stakeholders, both structurally and in terms of the development of the process. The authors have systematized the methods of managing stakeholders in the project. All the accumulated knowledge base is represented in the form of a structure containing: the phases of the project; stages of management; group of processes; methods, tools, actions. Based on the proposed systematization, the entire set of stakeholder management tasks is presented in the form of a single process of sequential related actions, which allows the manager to see and monitor the whole process. The possibilities of increasing the controllability of external factors and persons both in structural terms and in terms of development of the process are determined. It is shown that the analysis of external and internal forces creates a basis for the formation of relationships management structures. When creating a formal organization for managing interactions, two things should be considered: the choice of the formal structure and the criteria by which to evaluate the success of relationship management. It is proposed to use the method of hierarchy analysis to select the optimal structure - representation of the problem in the form of a hierarchy. In the problem under consideration, the structure is represented by possible alternatives that form the fourth (lower) level of the hierarchy. The criteria and sub-criteria to which the structure should correspond form the second and third levels of the hierarchy. At the top of the hierarchy, the goal is to select the optimal structure in terms of better satisfaction of the interests of key actors in the project environment. It is shown that it is possible to assess the success of managing interactions by time control. It is shown that for an unprepared artist, the time for the interaction is subject to the random walk equation. If the management of interactions is entrusted to a formal structure, the whole complex of tasks will be performed much faster. In addition, time is easy to measure and can serve as a quantitative measure of the evaluation of the success of managing interactions in the presence of a structure and without it.Object of study. Management processes of the persons, who interested in the project environment. Subject of study.Methods and tools for the project management environment.

Keywords


project environment; persons which interested in the project; factors that determine the success of the project; assessment of the achievement of the project objectives; opportunities to achieve the objectives of each of the stakeholders.

References


Bilokon A. I., Trifonov I. V. Upravlinnia proektamy i programamy restrukturyzatsii [Project management and rehabilitation programs]. Dnipropetrovsk: PDABA, 2008, 138 p.(in Ukrainian).

Bilokon A. I., Malanchiy S. A. Upravlenie okrugeniem v proektah obucheniya inostrannih studentov [Management of environment in the projects of foreign students’ training] // Visnyk Natsionalnoho tekhnichnogo universytetu «KhPI». Zbirnyk naukovykh prats. Seriia: Stratehichne upravlinnia, upravlinnia portfeliamy, programamy ta proektamy[Bulletin of the National Technical University «KhPI». Collection of scientific papers. Series: Strategic management, portfolio managemet, programs and projects]. – Kh.: NTU «KhPI». – 2015. - №2, pp. 8–13 (in Russian).

Bilokon A. I., Malanchiy S. A., Kotsiuba T. V. Upravlenie zainteresovannymi storonami v okrugenii proekta [Manage interested parties in project environment]// Visnyk Prydniprovskoi dergavnoi akademii budivnytstva ta arkhitektury [Bulletin of Pridneprovska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Archicture]. – Dnipropetrovsk: PDABA, 2016. - №4 (217), pp. 79–83 (in Russian).

Grashina M. A., Dunkan V. R. Osnovy upravleniya proektami [Basics of project management]. – St. Petersburg: Piter, 2006, 208 p. (in Russian).

Walker R. Upravlenie mezhdunarodnym okruzheniem proekta [International project management environment]. Project Leadership Seminar: Confidential materials.Strategic Management Group. Philadelphia, 1994, 15 p.

Yulker R. Managing the international project environment // Interrnational Journal of project Management. – 1992. – Vol. 10, iss. 4, pp. 219-226.

Mitchell R. K., Agle B. R., Wood D. J. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts //Academy of Management Review. 1997. Vol. 22, № 4, pp. 853–888.

Saati T. and Kerns K. Analiticheskoe planirovanie. Organizatsiya system [Analytical planning. Organization of systems]. Moscow: Radio I svyaz’, 1991, 224 p. (in Russian).

Silvasti Yu. Upravlenie zainteresovanymi storonami [Management of interested parties]. Mir upravleniya proektami. Osnovy, metody, organizatsiya, primenenie [World of project management. Basics, methods organization and application]. Eds. Reschke J and Schell H. Moskva: Alans, 1993, pp. 188 – 192 (in Russian).

Upravlinnya proektami [Project Management]/ Edited by S. K. Chernova and V. V. Maliy: Tutorial.– Mykolayiv, NUK, 2010, 354 p. (in Ukrainian).

ISO 21 500:2012. Guidance on Project Management. ISO – 2012, 36 p.


GOST Style Citations


  1. Білоконь А. І. Управління проектами і програмами реструктуризації / А. І. Білоконь, І. В. Тріфонов. – Дніпропетровськ: ПДАБА, 2008. – 138 с.
  2. Белоконь А. И. Управление окружением в проектах обучения иностранных студентов / Белоконь А. И., Маланчий С. А., Бахри Надхем // Вісник Національного технічного університету «ХПІ»: зб. наук. пр. Серія: Стратегічне управління, управління портфелями, програмами та проектами. – Х.: НТУ «ХПІ». – 2015. - №2. – С. 8–13.
  3. Белоконь А. И. Управлениезаинтересованными сторонами в окружении проекта / Белоконь А. И., Маланчий С. А., Коцюба Т. В. // Вісник Придніпровської державної академії будівництва та архітектури. – Дніпропетровськ: ПДАБА, 2016. - №4 (217). – С. 79 –83.
  4. ГрашинаМ. А. Основыуправленияпроектами / М. А. Грашина, В. Р. Дункан. – Санкт-Петербург: Питер, 2006. – 208 с.
  5. Йоукер Р. Управлениемеждународнымокружениемпроекта / Роберт Йоукер // ProjectLeadershipSeminar : Confidentialmaterials / StrategicManagementGroup. – Philadelphia, 1994. – 15 c.
  6. Yulker R. Managing the international project environment // Interrnational Journal of project Management. – 1992. – Vol. 10, iss. 4, pp. 219-226.
  7. Mitchell R.K., Agle B.R., Wood D.J. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts //Academy of Management Review. 1997. Vol. 22, № 4, pp. 853–888.
  8. Саати Т. Принятие решений. Метод анализа иерархий / Т. Саати ; пер. с англ. Р. Г. Вачнадзе. – Москва : Радио и связь, 1993. – 278 с.
  9. Силвасти Ю. Управление заинтересованными сторонами / Юхани Силвасти // Мир управления проектами.Основы, методы, организация, применение :[пер с англ.] / под ред. Х. Решке, Х. Шелле. – Москва : Аланс, 1993. – С. 188–192.
  10. Управління проектами/ Під ред. С.К. Чернова и В.В. Малого: Навчальний посібник. –  Миколаїв, НУК, 2010. – 354 с.
  11. ISO 21 500:2012. Guidance on Project Management.  ISO – 2012. – 36 c.